A disease characterised by the excessive elimination of a substance in urine. Several types of diabetes exist but the best known remains the so called sugar diabetes. The latter is expressed by an overabundant presence of sugar in urine and is due to a hyperglycemia or an insufficiency in the secretion of insulin. Sugar diabetes is a common disease which affects 5% of the population of industrialised nations. Only 15% of these people suffer from type 1 diabetes (a major deficit of insulin secretion whose treatment rests on obligatory and daily injection of synthetic insulin) whilst the rest (85%) suffer from type 2 diabetes (a reduction in the effect of insulin on the cells, generally due to people being overweight. Losing weight and maintaining a balanced diet often allows this glycaemia to be normalised.